Western Balkans: The Fight for a Sustainable FutureLatest update June 8, 2019 Started on September 21, 2018
Developing regions worldwide are struggling to retain their identities while coping with the global surge in tourism. The western Balkans are on the front line of this battle.
Mass tourism is already transforming and degrading parts of Montenegro and Albania. Yet beautiful but impoverished rural areas in these countries actually need more visitors. Can residents there do tourism in a way that preserves the true soul of the Balkans?
The soul of The Western Balkans
When we started our trip through these three countries, 45 days ago, we did not know what was to be expected. Today we can summarize that the struggle for its sustainability is being forged. They do have challenges, and now it’s just a matter of time to await the outcome.
If we would specify what the Western Balkans are, we would say they are an unspoiled, immaculate place with an authenticity difficult to find elsewhere in the world. We humbly seek to project the soul of our expedition in the following video. Please contemplate and let us know your comments, doubts or questions about this destination that is simply raw and unexpected.
To Grow It Must Be Slow
We traveled to Albania, Montenegro, and Bosnia Herzegovina of the Western Balkans to explore a destination at a new pivotal point in their own history. While many European countries enjoyed growth and tourism the last few decades, the Western Balkans were recovering from political conflict and war. Fear kept many travelers away.
In the urgency to catch up economically, westernize, and develop, the western Balkan coastline quickly put volume before value with predominantly international investments for large-scale developments. The Western Balkan started their path to join, rather than learn from, neighboring countries who moved too fast to commercialize. Sarandë in Southern Albania is an example of a once quaint coastal village, rich in culture, that grew without a vision and lost its local charm and tourism draw.
Avasch, avasch. Translated in English as ‘go slowly, go slowly’, is a common expression across the Western Balkans; which foreshadows their hopeful future.
Hidden in the stone, along the ancient trails, and cooked into the food, far from the coasts, lies the hope and heart of old Europe. In its past, lies its future; not just for the Western Balkans but for destinations around the world who struggle to maintain the balance between growth and preservation.
Auron Tare, founder of Butrint National Park, told us there is always a risk when showcasing destinations like the village of Nivicë or Butrint National Park to travelers. Destinations that need money from tourism are put at risk of exploitation.
Butrint National Park, a Unesco World Heritage Site, known for its ancient ruins of Butrint, is at risk of over tourism. Having gone from few visitors to over 300,000 a year, is making Butrint vulnerable to reducing its heritage value like most historic landscapes in the Mediterranean region.
Pioneering individuals are working throughout the Balkans to change how tourism can bring income to local villages while preserving their culture and way of life. Auron Tare is building the first model in Albania, as the Nivica Project Coordinator, to connect the coastline tourism with mountainous communities like the village of Nivicë. He is working to create a sustainable way of using ancient trails to guide travelers through cultural stories filled with natural beauty and explore these unknown areas of southern Albania. Auron believes success requires destinations to have a vision, local leadership, community involvement, and a management plan with accountable standards that promotes a new growth model which develops organically and sustainably.
A sustainable future for The Western Balkans is also in the hands of the traveler. Jack Delf, Chair of the Western Balkans Geotourism Network, said he wants travelers who respects the local culture, history, and its people. Don’t come with expectations of changing the destination. The Balkans is a place for the new thinking traveler that respects, embraces and wants to learn from a destination and its people. It is for those who seek connection. For those who understand that the local people, like themselves, want and deserve a higher quality of life while living the way they’d like.
It is about empowering local producers to value how they live, what they grow, and what they make while welcoming travelers who want genuine experiences and authentic Albanian products, Liana Suleymanova, with Creative Business Solutions, explained to us. Their agrotourism work in rural communities throughout northern Albania provides a platform for this lifestyle. In our travels I was continually moved by the pride of the local people. Pride in their heritage, family, traditions, vegetable gardens and fruit trees, artwork, and cooking. Then, unbelievably, their willingness to share it all.
The Western Balkans’ future is still unknown as the push for volume and quick growth continually fights against the balance of growing slowly and organically. Nancy Tare, Regional Director for Albania of The Western Balkans Geotourism Network feels that other countries are back peddling from over development and the impacts from mass tourism. In Albania, they have to involve and value local people to grow sustainably and maintain they're authenticity and charm. If they don’t, they will lose everything.
Can tourism in The Western Balkans be done in a way that preserves the true soul of the region? We hope so.
To grow. It must be slow.
It is a delicate balance and a challenge that is being taken on by inspiring people we were fortunate to meet. It was an honor to share a small piece of The Western Balkans with our readers. It’s our hope that theThe Western Balkans will succeed in charting a new course of sustainable tourism that preserves the soul and genuine goodness of what moved me to tears many times throughout our expedition.
Raw. Unspoiled. Real. We are thankful this is still much of the Western Balkans.
If you travel to The Western Balkans, please, go slowly. Embrace it and learn from it. It has so much to teach you. Stillness is a priceless luxury.
If your experience is like ours, you won’t want to change it, because it will already have changed you.
Changing the Paradigm: Altini Prenga Part 2.
Why have we been impressed by the sustainable development that Altini has generated in Mrizi i Zanave Agroturizem? The answer lies mainly in the 400 families of farmers who every day deliver organic supplies for the restaurant. Plus a staff of 75 people who work every day making delicious food possible. Altini has injected life to Fishtë knowing that before any personal growth, comes the growth of the region.
The day for Altini starts at 6:00 am. He knows the exact time that the dairy farmers arrive, the vegetable farmers, the honey farmers, the pomegranate harvesters and everyone who arrives with a new product that will be transformed in the kitchen, Look, look at this basket with impressive wild mushrooms that a farmer has brought me. They are wonderful. We must do something special with them, he mentions to us excitedly. As the sun rises touching the Earth, it’s light allows us to clearly see how this man and his team have managed to transform a former prison for political convicts of war into a facility destined for the reception and transformation of food with international quality standards. That is the third building of the complex that Altini shows us proudly where before was a conflicts facility, today we have proud work, hope, and exquisite products of the gastronomy of the Balkans.
As a team and in previous entries we have analyzed that the excessive volume of tourists contributes to the decline of a destination. How is it possible that a place that receives 650 people in a day in summer is the exception to this rule? We act as our grandparents did but we add the current components that make us good both in terms of technology and market. In the kitchen we are creative. My grandmother said you have to cook with what you have and do magic with it, that's what we do. We arevery clear about our installed capacity to respect the processes that make us strong, and greed is not part of our business. We have a single price per person that makes it possible to plan sharply what will be prepared. Of course there are wines that we can add to the menu but my dream. that I am fulfilling day by day. is that tourists who come here are absorbed by our products, for that we invest in the training of farmers and producers in the area.
Altini's leadership is evident and moves towards a shared well-being that has made the region in which Mrizi i Zanave Agroturizem stand synonymous with pride for all those who make it up. Altini has changed our paradigm of sustainable tourism. We must take a look back to the past so that we can learn from its errors and envision the future to be prepared. Here nothing is wasted.Organic waste goes to the compost. Water is taken care of by drip irrigation.We let the animals reproduce at their pace as they walk through the mountains. We use environmentally friendly products in all our processes. Even our meat transforming processes are attached to ancestral techniques of salinization as well as our pasta and bread are made respecting old techniques. I do not want to change anything in my land.It is perfect.The only thing I look for is shared well-being: that more and more people join to love the countryside.I will take care that through the kitchen everyone has a job, Altini tells us while carrying some pumpkins that vegetable farmers recently brought him. Altini’s day is just beginning. In a few hours he will be passionately cooking and directing the kitchen to finish happy until 10:00 pm, time in which probably the last diners will finish one of his spectacular desserts.
And it is here, almost at the end of the trip when all the learned knowledge is detonated and simplified into a universal value: love of the earth. It is this value that truly makes the people we have met on the trip see beyond tourism as just a business. Instead they see sustainable tourism where the love that is given to the earth, along with current creativity and future knowledge, anticipates the vision of a region by the locals who love their land more than any amount of money.
Changing the Paradigm: Altini Prenga Part 1.
A month after starting our trip through the Balkans, we followed the advice of Auron Tare, who with his firm voice told us how an Albanian chef had returned from Italy to do something never seen before: a mix between art, lodging, sustainability and food. Curious about such a promise, we went again to Albania. The destination: Mrizi i Zanave Agroturizem to meet Altini Prenga.
We crossed borders between Montenegro and Albania again to reach Fishtë in Lezhë district, this time when we saw the majestic landscapes of the road the meaning of the Balkans somehow felt different. The transformation in our being had happened, but we still had to know a place that would start a revolution in our brains.
Frankly, sustainability seems an utopia when thousands of people enter and leave a place; using resources, agglomerated by thousands, failing to really feel the destination but instead taking a digital memory. And so forth, among the growing fields appears in the center of nowhere our change of paradigm.
Where once was a prison for political prisoners, in a region forgotten by the high immigration rates adorned by what at some point were war bunkers, today stands a tasteful vernacular architectural complex. Itighlights the beautiful white stone of the Balkans that we glanced in Nivicë. How can this be agrotourism? Is the first thing we think ... no, it can not be. The paradigmatic shock begins.
We enter the first of the buildings in the complex. Each detail is exquisitely aesthetic, We have only used materials from the region to make it possible interrupted the voice of a genius who we would get to know thoroughly on the coming day. The restaurant is completely full, about 150 people must be sitting enjoying the food, no other table is free than the table that awaits us. But at the same time, the well-maintained atmosphere does not feel annoyingly overcrowded, still rather it seems that all the diners join the background music, thus creating a very pleasant melody.
We started to build this a few years ago, when we started to do this with my father, my brother and I. Many people told us we were crazy. Why do this here? In the middle of nowhere where there were only memories of the war. The answer is simple: this is my origin. I am from here. This food is what my grandmother and her grandmother prepared. I respect my land and I am proud of the farmers, of their products. I am an immigrant who returned home from Italy to combine aesthetics and art with the traditions of my people. Our eyes and ears can not be more open with the eloquent words of this man while dishes with high quality standards come to our table. My philosophy of life is what our uniform says, Think global, act local. My production processes are designed to take care of the land of the farmers, I do not have a menu. For that reason every season I cook what the farmers bring me. I would not standardize a process that is not good for agriculture. Agriculture is our mother, she dictates what and what not to do.
The flavors are simply wonderful and the presentation is undoubtedly a visual poetry. I want in the future that all the farmers of my region, young people especially understand the value of doing this, of not neglecting the living of our land. I simply added the factor of the world’s social reality that surrounds us. We can not languish upon the past. Nonetheless we must be careful how we absorb the new proposals that society has because if we lose our essence we lose everything. It seems that Altini has just read our entry The Challenges of the Balkans and has overcome those one by one.
We just had dinner and we went to a comfortable and pleasant room to sleep in the second of the buildings that make up the complex, The simplicity makes every corner of this building captivating. The words of Altini, the impressive order of execution of his attention to his customers in the restaurant, as well as the food, have left us ecstatic. What will happen tomorrow? Will we understand what is behind this perfect harmony between development and sustainability?
The Challenges of the Western Balkans
Our trip to the Balkans has almost ended. We have known many projects, people, landscapes and places that stole both our breath and our hearts.
Jack Delf, Western Balkans Geotourism Network Chairman, from a few years back until now has sought to generate a transformative tourism by means of Black Mountain in the Balkans. We have spent with him the last days of our journey, so those effective hours on the road shared with his thoughts led us to understand the various challenges of this beautiful region of the planet . We will seek to list the ideas in a summary, taking also into account all the experiences including the ones in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Albania.
The first challenge is found in the conception of poverty. On multiple occasions on our trip we heard and read that one of the main questions to exponentiate tourism in the region is to raise the people’s quality of life and generate jobs. The purpose is noble, it is suitable for the species as a society and the short-term well-being of some. However, it is important to note that before our eyes the only thing we saw in the people of the countries we met was absolute admiration for the means of production they have, the freedom they have to enjoy their day, the air they breathe away from polluting factories, and living in community. They are millionaires having the possibility of feeding themselves with pesticide-free produce and food, far from the problems that come with the processed products that we in the West use every day. Sure, there will always be a lack of means of improvement, for everyone all over the world, but the well-being of knowing that the goat they milk has been taken care of with love and has grazed every morning since newborn in a field that does not know the existence of herbicides, eliminates any welfare scheme created and speculated by man.
I remember Marie from Agrotourism Farm Devin in Qerret, Albania when I asked her why she wants to have people (tourists) in her house and if she really does need them. ’Cristina, what we need is to share what we have.’ That was the same comment I received from Dusha in Nivicë, Albania and Jovanka in Bosnia - Herzegovina.
What is important? The challenge is for the new generations. They must understand they have the opportunity to respect the current processes and add the necessary technology that does not overwhelm and globalize an unparalleled purity. Traveling to the Balkans is truly remembering what matters in the world. Young generations here must conceive it quickly and clearly that their countries are filled with an absolute immaculate glory that cannot be seen in other parts of the world.
The second challenge is the care of the land. Specifically, we’re referring to the local people of the Balkans not putting their land up for sale to foreign investors. The purchasing power of foreign investors carries with it the severe risk of changing the landscape forever, often to the detriment of its nature, biodiversity, quality of life for local people and wildlife, and, as being proven in other countries, it’s economy and incentive for tourism. Other countries internationally have fallen into the heartrending reality of selling their land and its accompanying biodiversity. They are left at the mercy of any money generated by any economic practice to leave the country. The importance of locals being proud of their land, traditions, and productive means is the only thing that will preserve trees, mountains, rivers, animals, insects and with it life itself.
Aleksander Perovic in Durmitor Park, Montenegro, about his work in wildlife protection, shared, ’The power of the locals is immense, it is everything. Taking care of what is theirs is what will make the bears safe, and protect their biodiversity.’
How to make this happen? Much of the work is done by people like those we had the opportunity to meet and many more who are anonymous in this expedition but surely leave a legacy. The locals, regardless of the economic activity in which today they are practicing, are the only ones able to restrict the entrance of any government or malicious investor that seeks to pipe their water and then sell them bottled. Yes, in Albania the water is still free, clean and pure from the mountains.
The third and very powerful challenge is the vertiginous globalization The immaculateness of the Balkans is amazing with its peace of the mountains. Its beauty leaves you speechless, its colors dazzle. However, for the locals it can be tempting to let themselves be carried away by the substitution of their products, simply because they are "new" or "different". We have seen how the customs are repeatedly lost or even worse, there is no proper management of the waste that these types of products leave.
I still remember with emotion the meeting of the people of Nivicë led by Auron Tare, where the locals talked about the importance of waste disposal they would have if tourists came to their town. That unity is necessary for community improvement of a small town of no more than 50 families, and is the union that will keep anyone from breaking their spirit.
Whose responsibility is it? It is shared between tourists and locals. As travelers what is expected? To not visit with demands. We must be open on our trip to receive from the Balkans what comes. Not a western or mediterranean breakfast... no, please, because you will miss trying the wonder of fresh butter by Dusha in Nivicë. On a different expedition in another country, we unfortunately had the same breakfast in all the hotels we stayed in at larger cities because of their "quality standards". When you travel, receive. If you are there, receive. Let life surprise you and fill you with smiles, because that is what you will experience when staying at a Katun in Montenegro, in a Villa in Bosnia-Herzegovina or in a beautiful farm in Albania.
And the locals? Remember to buy locally made products. You don’t need cheap foreign-made souvenirs. That is a short-term welfare that will make the destination just the same as other countries.
The fourth is without a doubt the planning of the destination It is essential that Master Plans accompany the locals to develop their tourism products, otherwise everything will fall apart. Improvisation is a bad adviser that can corrupt governments and leaders. Which government does not want to demonstrate large rising numbers that may be perceived as positive? The correct selection of market, development of products with a fair price, creation or strengthening of institutions and the commercial homologation of the destination under the vision of sustainability must be present in each decision.
Established agreements that aim at short, medium and long term is what will give a guide for the next generations that can really think about sustainability.
Within our team we always asked ourselves: What would happen to the destinations that are overexploited today if they’d had a magnifying glass with which to look towards the future? Well, Albania, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina have it. They have the power to see their future if they explore the sad reality of some of their neighboring countries where the volume of tourists crushed the beauty of their history.
How to achieve it? By demanding. Each village, community, project must be supported by its vision that points in every way to the natural and cultural sustainability of the country. It is no more than that. Opening the doors of a house to a stranger (because that's what tourists are) can always bring consequences. A clear example is the impact on the use of resources and waste generation.
It is necessary for the locals to understand that no one is paying them to use their land at will, but on the contrary they are being paid with economic gratitude the possibility of letting us in. To spoil tourists with an irrational treatment can undoubtedly confuse on which side is the power.
We Must Redefine Tourism
Most likely it is not necessary to further explain how mass tourism annihilates the experience of visiting a destination, a new culture or just enjoying your next vacation. But in case there is any sceptical thinking about the damage that can be caused by the concentration of people in one place I will leave an example that really gives the expedition team chills:
Barcelona is an international tourist attraction that at some given time enjoyed a pleasant climate that gave peace to all those who walked through its streets. Its splendor left every tourist who visited the Spanish city speechless. Its cultural, architectural and historical attractions are simply spectacular, including the Basilic of the Sacred Family. However, time passed and in 2017 this city collected € 28,017,753 just in the collection of the tax on stays in tourist establishments according to the Observatory of Tourism in Barcelona (OTB).
What's wrong with that? These figures sound good enough for a political report of results, the question is: What is the cost of such large figures? Regrettably 6 of every 10 inhabitants of Barcelona to 2017 report that the city is at the limit of receiving more tourists (OTB, 2017) This type of state of mind has to do with the fact that tourists are welcomed with arms wide open, an example of this is the water issue: while the average water consumption is 127 liters per person per day in Spain, the average consumption of a tourist who visits this country ranges from 450 to 800 liters per day according to El Diario and the journalist José Luis Gallego who explains the urgency of paying extreme attention to this issue, making it clear in the title of his note We do not have water for so much tourist
And it is that the numbers become chilling in the water issue if you multiply the liters spent by the 12,924,561 tourists registered during 2017 in hotels, pensions, hostels, camping areas and local touristic activities that visited Barcelona. This is more than 5 billion liters of water, something like filling up 2,326 Olympic swimming pools during 2017.
How to make this not happen with the Balkans? In the Balkans! In this jewel of nature where, fortunately, peace reigns, why should it happen? If we think of only one country in this peninsula: Crna Gora (the country’s denomination in its original language); we can notice how the economic income, in what refers to tourism, went from 86 million euros to 480 million euros in the period of 2001 to 2007 (Montenegro Ministry of Tourism and Environment, 2008). That rise is fully reflected in the popularity of the brand and slogan "Montenegro Wild Beauty" that fully honors its name.
"Montenegro Wild Beauty" brand is safeguarded by the Tourism Master Plan itself, which began in 2001, was updated 2008, and today, 18 years after its inception, has given the country the possibility to trace part of its sustainability in an orderly manner. How do we know about it? We had the good fortune to meet Kirsi Hyvaerinen, a board member of the Global Ecotourism Network, who has made Crna Gora her own space of work and living.
Going a little deeper into the Tourism Master Plan and the officially adopted extracts from it, the Tourism Development Strategy to 2020, Kirsi highlights some points that should have been fundamental for the sustainable development of tourism for almost 20 years. The first is the vision with which the country was projected itself from the beginning, where the importance of protecting the country's resources in its first two lines are left clear: By 2020, Montenegro will have become a destination with all-year-round tourism, with picturesque landscapes and protected biodiversity.
To make possible the protection of biodiversity, the Strategy focuses on Harmonize the establishments with the environment (e.g. tourist infrastructure blending with the natural environment)
- POINT 1.6 Perform waste treatment according to the Republic-Level Waste Strategic Masterplan
- POINT 1.7 Implement the National Strategy of Sustainable Development
- POINT 2.3 Develop different tourism products, where four of nine stand out to seek and preserve the current lifestyle of the people who live in the mountains and the countryside: mountain product, holiday on the farm (agrotourism) wilderness camping, cultural and religious tourism
- POINT 3.2 and finally the support of the state under the precept of create and maintain the institutional and legal framework suitable to demands of successful and sustainable tourism
- POINT 4. This last point highlights an interesting legal framework:
Montenegro was one of the first states to commit itself to sustainable development. This pledge was solemnly proclaimed by parliament in 1991. It is set forth in Article 1 of the Constitution and has been underpinned by relevant strategy papers, including the National Strategy of Sustainable Development (NSSD) and the Environment Law. Article 23 of the Constitution accords precedence to environmental protection over freedom of enterprise, which is also assured. The Environment Law underlines the major importance attached to the nation's status as an 'ecological state'. It safeguards all natural assets and biodiversity.
The Tourism Development Strategy that Kirsi shares with us is directly reflected by what we have seen in our days through the mountain roads. Several of the tourist products offered in the mountain area have been created with her participation, and in close cooperation with hundreds of national and local partners and stakeholders. From Montenegro´s Wilderness Hiking & Biking trails, in which tourists have had a growing preference to know the country in a sustainable way through to the latest cross-border products like Peaks of the Balkans and Via Dinarica that give the opportunity to really live the Balkans, taking visitors to have a transformational journey, Kirsi shares.
Montenegro is pure beauty and it must be discovered in its National Parks that have several trails for different outdoor activities, being one the unparalleled experience of hiking or biking to a Katun destination Katun concludes Kirsi with a deep look towards the mountains. We are in front of an ecotourism expert who has continuously promoted this activity in the country to offer a life experience to travelers willing to let themselves be carried away by the magic of routes where nature and traditions captivate.
Both the strategy in planning, and the examples of execution that Kirsi shares with us are a reflection of the fight that The Balkans are giving to make present the sustainable development of the country. But particularly, there are impediments in the daily execution that we could find in three ways so far: The treatment of waste that despite the various cleaning campaigns and mandate to establish a "clean image" in which Montenegro sets the example, continues the non-separation of waste, illegal landfills and the burning of garbage as a cultural practice in this country and its neighbors. A petition that Kirsi started with like-minded ecowarriors, should speed up things to turn to the better.
A secondary problem may come with the phenomenon of globalization, which despite being active for almost 40 years around the world, The Balkans seems a virgin area where standardized products can replace the beauty of those of origin.
Finally and the most dangerous of all is the reference to the locals that can be overshadowed by quick cash inflows of those that promise more is better, when as Kirsi says to redefine tourism we must think of value not volume.
Durmitor Park and Orjen mountain
We would need to write a poem to explain the natural beauty that lives in Montenegro in its mountains and national parks.
Thanks to Jack and Hayley from Black Mountain as well as to Yanko our hiking guide in Northern Montenegro, and to Zelijko Starcevic from Subra Mountain Club, we were able to experience hiking at its best. We were simply shocked at the experience of enjoying the landscapes that our planet earth still gives us. Without more words, we hope you enjoy this journey that is a visual poetry.
Travelers Can Influence Change
Both sustainable tourism and mass tourism mean income for the destination, but at different rates of change and at different costs to the destination.
Sustainable tourism can be a slower process for revenue but with greater benefits and returns to the destination in the long-run.
Jonathan Tourtellot, a National Geographic Explorer, founder of geotourism, and leader with me in World’s Inspiring Places has already taught me a lot about how the right kind of tourism can change a destination. This is your holiday, but this is my home, is one of my favorite quotes of his. We often have a short time at a destination and seek to maximize it, often at the expense of the local people in noise, waste, and haste.
How and where you choose to spend your money matters. His quote, You vote with your dollar. Where you spend your dollar is what you’re saying you want more of’ is important now more than ever in the face of mass tourism and its negative impacts on popular destinations. Global tourism has grown into the trillions, yes trillions, and is now one of the world’s fastest largest and fastest sectors.
When you’re traveling, do you really want to eat or sleep at places you could in your own homeland? Have you ever been asked at a restaurant for a brief intermission so the owner had time to milk her cow before moving from drinks to dinner? In our travels that happened. During this requested pause our crew had to explore, and sure enough, out back in a cozy dimly lit barn, was the sweet woman, and restaurant owner milking her cow as she cooed affectionately to it. What an experience.
As travelers, we can unknowingly exploit a destination with demands, expectations, and desires for cheap travel or structured experiences. Another quote of Jonathan’s is, Losing local people, loses the character of the community. It is becoming Disneyland. and unfortunately most of us are all too familiar with this. Destinations all over the world are becoming akin to theme parks with costumes, reenactments, and lines to see the remains of a lost culture.
We can help to change that by being conscious, thinking travelers, supporting local businesses and taking time to learn about a destination's local people, customs, and values.
Authentic experiences; that's the Western Balkans
Today in Montenegro, we traveled for an hour and a half by car from Plužine, a fantastic town that was flooded for a dam construction in the 70's and was reborn piece by piece, to Sokolina (Land of Falcons) and I found myself in nothingness and with myself.
We were inside an actual cloud, it was not fog, because we were 1500 meters from the sea. The forest was confused with the sky. There in Pivo Mountains we literally arrived at The Little Paradise, the guesthouse of Dragan. This is really a true story about returning to sustainablity .
Dragan was born in 1961 in this falcon village. Looking forward for a "better life", his parents sent him to college. He studied political science and became a suit and tie man working in the Serbian Parliament. One day he had a cerebral stroke that luckily changed his life and he decided to leave his stressed life and move back to the mountain that saw him grow as a kid.
What does this have to do with sustainable tourism? What does this have to do with the sustainability of the Balkans? Everything.
The story of Dragan is one of many here in the Balkans, of people who went back to their roots to remember that life is what we only had once: organic food, clean air and the philosophy of going slowly to be happy. That is what makes the difference.
Mass tourism is far away from this awesome place in the mountains, 1000 meters up from Pivo River, that Dragan calls, "the paradise that made him heal".
And such as Dragan’s Paradise, sustainable tourism makes the land and our souls heal.
P.S. He makes a delicious potato and goat roast. And yes, everything was organic.
The Pristine Backyard of Montenegro
With our friends from Black Mountain this time with Jack and Yanko, we entered a hiking circuit that took us to explore part of the spectacular Piva Lake, in Plužine. We then took the road up to its canyon to see one of the more spectacular views. We got to sit and contemplate the landscape with its peace, silence and tranquility.
Why do tourists crowd only the beaches? Why concentrate on one point and therefore wear it out?I remember the Bay of Kotor and the great transatlantic cruises. The uncontrolled popularity is the enemy of a destination.One of the biggest mistakes of tourist promoters is to advertise the same destination as a must see, to settle for what is known only because it is easier to sell.
Jack makes us think while the wind gives us a good breeze, when tourists don’t question major tour operators about prefabricated and popular products, that means they do not see the pure and real beauty of a place but what is faked to make it look like the real deal.
Jack has dedicated his life to finding the ideal means to promote tourist destinations seeking to generate the least impact. He has devoted himself to develop tourism that improves from the perspective of conservation of spaces: One of the points that tourists must understand is that they have power, a dangerous power, because with their money they decide what has value. There are options for example to pay a tour or to donate an amount established for the care of the place to which I refer, to which we must make a balance in the fixing of the price of the products. If only a rate is stipulated to cover the costs and the margin of the vendor, we are leaving aside the most important thing. All of us dedicated to tourism, have the obligation to add a percentage for conservation programs of the place!
The words of Jack with his particular British accent hang in the air, it is elementary to evaluate this model of contribution to the place. Beyond the economic activity per sé it is important that the tourist begins to accept that if he likes a place he must respect the needs. A healthy environment begins with acts of care and may end in economic events or impulse to own sustainability activities that safeguard the place.
The peace that lives up the mountain of Piva Lake, goes back to Durmitor. This same wind that touches our face with force and fills our lungs with oxygen makes us think of conservation activities that a traveler can imagine. Dear reader, something as simple as support to reforest an area and over the years remember that millions of miles away there is a tree on the other side of the world that is upright because you propitiated it and in this way future generations can enjoy what you also lived. After all, everyone deserves to see and feel the beauty that is experienced in Montenegro.
Herb & Honey Route in Bosnia - Herzegovina
After two emotionally intense days living in Trebinje accompanied by the excellent human being Marko Çapin, a revelation whispered in my brain: you can not generate sustainable tourism if the place is not natural. It is the equivalent of wanting to sing opera with laryngitis or saying that we eliminate the plastic of our lives because we no longer use bags and straws but change our mobile phone every six months. Returning to the origin is more complicated if everything is damaged.
The project of Herb & Honey Route of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Agrotourism promoted by USAID, CEED, Into Albania and the excellent efforts by Auron and Nancy Tare with Nivica Project, are all gems of sustainability because the regions are already virginal by themselves in a way. Marko sustained that the biggest market he has for the Herb & Honey Route, regarding the primary issue of virginal sustainability, is the Japanese for the broad culture of respect that they come with to the area.
We explored one of the options to rest and eat in Tuli. The villages of this town are agglomerates of no more than 10 houses separated by between 3 to 5 kilometers, and are simply magical. Time stops in Tuli. The love of the Jovanka and Savo farmers who received us filled us with good wishes. The possibility of sleeping under the starry sky in a tent, waking up with the fresh dew of the grass and then going to breakfast in the Kisin's house connects you with the origin of humanity that we lose in our day to day emails and rushed lives.
The Herb & Honey Route is that life: people feeding on their farm’s pesticide-free produce, enjoying their own wine, eating delicious Kajmak, leaning on neighbors if something is missing at home, not wasting anything, reusing the glass, delicately treating the use of products previously manufactured, and managing everything that is at home as a masterpiece in a circular manner. The people in Tuli taught us that happiness grows, when fostered, in a wood stove.
The question then is, do they want tourists or do tourists want them? Marko laughs. He is a clever man, full of wisdom and knows where we are going with our questions. In the world, he tells us, we need each other. Life must be a perfect balance; one day you are active and the other you rest. You can not just run, you must always have peace to achieve balance. Even if it is with tourists, we need a balance. It is nice to share this sense of life that is needed in the West.
And what is balance? It is when the experience here is best enjoyed in small groups. We can not invade a really quiet land with our noise. Solo adventurers or small numbers traveling together should be those who enter this land. The herds from cruises or buses should not touch this immaculate peace.
The reality is that sustainability is not a challenge for them. It is in the hands of travelers like us and our behavior, education, and values in not wanting in our haste to hurt a destination, but to go slowly and enjoy it. Sustainable tourism is about feeling and understanding places, not how many photos you take of them. It is not conquering monuments with selfies; it is embracing the culture and the skin, the heart and the blood of the people with whom you have spent your hours or days.
The Valley of Light and Hope
On our entire planet, at different times and for reasons as different as humanity itself, conflicts have existed. In the territory of what was called the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, we know it today as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Croatia and Slovenia.
On the trip through the Balkans, we were fortunate to understand the efforts of local tourism to create substantial change in this area that war, until the beginning of the current millennium, had left in its course both death and destruction. And although war still seems recent here, almost two decades of peace have passed among the different countries that share this impressive mountain range where its inhabitants only seek to live their days in peace.
The ravages of war may have left their mark, but the future and hope have more energy than the conflicts that are gradually being erased with the new generations of families that are returning to make their country the glorious place that nature dictates. One of those families is Nada Sakota's.
The clock tells us that it is after 11:00 in the morning and Nada, along with Jelena Koković, the winery enologist, receives us. Together, through each of their experience, they are leading an expansive, colorful and delicious vineyard that is generating its first wine productions under the name Vino 260, sun in a glass.
We briefly got to know the process of production of the wine that will prop it up to be one of the best in Eastern Europe. While the children of Nada run to meet us and see these travelers who have come to understand the sustainability model of their lands, a sweet smell of fermentation invades the air. As we walk the vineyard on the vast plain that once was justly the line of fire in the recent war, we realize that sustainability can not be possible without the love that locals have for their lands.
I want my wine to be for the region, that tourists can come to enjoy but above all that the people who live here can feel proud and part of its flavor, says Nada with a determined look fixed on the horizon where the sun falls, skimming the grapes. Once again, the feeling of love, however romantic it may seem, is an indisputable element in order to preserve the region to make it sustainable. Nada inherited from her father both the land and the pride of loving it. She is who reminds us that wine will now be what will unite and honor with glory this valley of light and hope.
Trebinje, the Picturesque and Peaceful Life, the Good Life
Living with people of different nationalities makes you understand the slight differences that make us unique: while Erika was in the restless recording mode that characterizes her for discovering the next place and Juan Carlos came and went with his camera looking for the best food shot, Marko Çapin our guide let us enjoy the last bite of a delicious Karadjordjeva Snicla in the Old Center of Trebinje, which with its magical architecture of white stone, surrounded by water and bridges made us feel in a picturesque story.
The clock indicates 4:00 p.m. and tranquility seizes Trebinje, so I ask Marko: Are there almost never people on the street? No, there are always people walking. What happens is that right now we are actually passing napping hours. The hours of naps? Yes, from 3:00 to 5:00 in the afternoon we usually sleep or rest after eating.
My Western thinking interrupts me with a short circuit. Two hours! And what has that to do with the sustainability of a tourist destination? Quite a lot. Going fast is the enemy of well-being for the land, they taught us in Albania and they reiterated it to us in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is not about setting aside responsibilities, it is rather having the ability to be in balance, to think, rest and have a clear mind for what is next on the schedule.
After these days of expedition the good life is redefined for us. The tourist destination that is in a hurry, seeking to increase numbers every year to show off journalistically that it is the best year because more people have entered, should always be taken with caution. At what cost is it better? The balance between the wellbeing of the locals, the architecture of the place, the quality of the water, the air and the food will always be rewards for the sustainability of the destination and Marko Çapin in Trebinje reminds us of it.
Farmers Market in the Center of Trebinje and the Sustainability of Traditions
Gordana guides us through the organic market of Trebinje to understand what we had shared and learned the day before in Popovo Polje Valley about the uniqueness and organic importance of the region's food. After understanding a little of the agricultural activity that is generated, which is far from the aggressive monocultures to which we are accustomed in the West due to the constant industrialization of modern agriculture, we tried several freshly harvested, organic vegetables and fruits that were truly succulent.
Among the tenants' stands we located a local product that Gordana wanted us to know: the Kajmak, a traditional Balkan cheese made special because all the processes involved (coagulation, drainage, pressing and ripening) are done inside a kind of sack made out of the intestines of a sheep, where the sack also becomes the final recipient. This process is millennial and ensures that traditions are preserved through the ability of the food to conserve our origins; and that the production processes that are preserved through the respect of traditions ensure that farmers do not lose the link with nature, Gordana tells me while tasting the Kajmak made with cow's milk, sheep's milk and various other milk mixtures.
It would seem that the chip of progress implanted in the collective consciousness of those born on the west side of the world would be breaking slowly when feeling the quality of organic made products, in small portions, since nature has its times and must be respected. Sustainability is defined as the ability to meet the needs of present generations without compromising those of future generations. This sentence lacks the clarification that generations refer to those of all species that inhabit our world. As well, the right of future travelers to know the flavor of the Kajmak is the responsibility of the producers of today and of the conscious demand of the current tourists.
The fact that the locals of a region are aware of the obligations to preserve the products of their lands is what will preserve the tourist attraction of the destination. Among the problems that afflict the preservation of the Kajmak Gordana tells us, are the migration to the cities of the younger generations, the regulations of the artisan production methods that ensure a homogeneous quality for the product, and the lack of union between producers in facing the challenges of the market together.
The Kajmak is only an example of what can be lost without the union of the locals and the push to preserve their origins, and with it the real appeal of their destiny.
It's About Balance
I'm learning on this expedition of sustainable tourism that like many things it comes down to balance. As our guide and new friend Marko Çapin explained. The people need the tourists. The tourists need the people. We have to work together. So many of the leaders in sustainable travel that we've met grapple with this balance. Interfering with culture by means of tourism has a high risk of exploitation. Tradition becomes a commodity. What we're learning is sustainable tourism has to grow slowly, consciously, with a vision for long-term success. We have to look at examples of what has worked, but even more importantly what hasn't worked in other countries like Venice and Barcelona who are now struggling to regain their identity.
Again, how do you create or maintain this balance? Go slowly. Grow consciously.
We learned it is about creating a plan and putting in place a long-term vision and leadership to carry it through.
It’s about destinations realizing they’re planting seeds for future generations to live and prosper in their homeland. To avoid losing their own power of opportunity and freedom, not become commodities themselves as low paid employees for international investors who reap the benefits without care or respect for the local nature, authenticity and beauty which attracted them to invest in the destination in the first place. It’s important to encourage and teach the younger generations the value and pride in being farmers and carrying on tradition, as we learned from Gordana Radovanović in her involvement with the Slow Food International movement Introduce the younger generations to organizations like Slow Food Terra Madre, she told us, so they don't feel isolated in being local farmers but instead see and feel a net of support. Help them to realize they don't have to go to the world, but the world can come to them through this network.
Preserve Flavors to Preserve Sustainability
Bosnia- Herzegovina is unexpected. Being in this country has been a journey in time. The Trebinje River breaks the earth to fill it with life. Under the river live unique creatures that were believed to be extinct, such as the olm, an aquatic salamander; and above, grow vegetables, tubers and fruits that can only be found in this region.
The richness of this country lies in its history and culture, which has been preserved by the local people despite past circumstances. Many things have happened here, but the most important is the way they’ve looked for ways to preserve the native species of the region, Gordana states while climbing up a hill towards an old stone church.
Gordana Radovanović is part of the Slow Food International movement, a project that seeks to preserve the gastronomic identity of countries around the globe by taking care of the production methods of food, by eating consciously, and by protecting our future through the ancestral knowledge of our food origins. By preserving the biodiversity of a region, tourism can be authentic. There is nothing more dangerous than losing what is ours, Gordana's reflection echoes in the Popovo Polje Valley.
In our path to understand sustainability, we as a team are now aware that globalization can be dangerous: the flavors, the textures, the traditions can dissolve and suddenly without realizing it you can be away from home vacationing but consuming the same brand of refreshing beverages or even dining in a restaurant with imitations of international specialities that you already know. That still does not happen in the Balkans and must be preserved. People like Gordana are a praiseworthy example of that.
Where are the challenges? They are in the attractive wave of service that the locals may confuse with replacing local products, seeds, traditions and flavors with commercial items to satisfy tourist desires. Or by letting themselves be swayed by the illusion of global progress, to which Gordana replies that it is dangerous that only one family this year preserved one of the most important types of grain for the traditional food we have. Without grain there is no dish. Without typical dishes our culture can not be preserved.
The relevance of the transmission, care and respect for the agricultural productive processes in the region are elementary to achieve sustainable tourism in The Balkans. Tomorrow, Gordana will take us to the market to know the most representative pride for the gastronomic tourism of the region: the producers. Let's see what happens.
2 century year-old Ognjište
I had all the intentions of posting about Trebinje's challenges today, but while exploring sustainable tourism and looking for anthropological roots, we got invited into a 2 century year-old Ognjište made of stone and drank some homemade wine and distilled raki until late into the night with local villagers.
Between Three Borders
October 18th was a traveling day. Jack and his excellent musical repertoire during the car ride kept us company between the border of Albania and Montenegro. The road was glorious, full of an intense range of colors among the green of summer that was dismissed to make way for a spectacular yellow and red autumn. It was a quiet road that lead to an image worthy of a postcard: Kotor Bay in Montenegro. Simply impressive.
It is more spectacular without the cruises, Jack interrupted my thoughts and with his comment we each followed his gaze. Three huge cruise ships crossing the bay definitely did not fit with the natural beauty we were admiring.
It is unfortunate to see how tourists hurry. Thousands of them only reach the nearby all-inclusive attractions they’ve been sold that commonly only generate a negative impact on the areas they visit, Jack tells us us while we witness the disembarkment of one of the cruise ships. Our wonderful disconnection from the world we felt in Albania was dissolving little by little in Kotor watching so many tourists looking for a quick tour to fill a few hours. Hurrying for that emblematic photograph, buying some quick souvenir made in China, and then returning to the boat was a far cry from knowing Montenegro.
After that bitter pill, the next day, October 19th, we crossed to Bosnia - Herzegovina. The landscape continued as majestic, but now we were on the road with the company of the pleasant and friendly Hayley Wright, expert in geotourism. At the arrival in Trebinje, we were introduced to Marko Çapin, who would be our spectacular host for the following days in this little and representative corner of Bosnia - Herzegovina.
First thing on the agenda was Hostel Polako to get to know the good vibes of Mr. Barkert, the owner. While having Turkish coffee and talking about a more relaxed tourist perspective, Barkert added the following unforgettable story to our expedition:
It's sad when you realize that the tourists who arrive by boats or buses that come on their fast trips for a few hours do not even know the name of our country. One day I was walking through the center of Trebinje and an old lady was endlessly taking pictures while thinking she was in Yugoslavia. That's how fast they go, how fast they feel and think they know.
Who has more to lose: the destination or the tourist? With ignorance we all lose. The hurry with which we tread the earth is proportional to the accelerated damage we do. Polako, polako they say in Bosnia - Herzegovina, go slowly to enjoy it, to really treasure or live it.
More is not better, running without stopping only drains energy. The same with tourism, the same with the Earth.
For more detailed information about the problem with cruises in Montenegro, please visit these articles:
Agrotourism, a proposal for sustainability in Northern Albania
As we mentioned a few days ago, Albania gave us the opportunity to live two different experiences of sustainable tourism in the country: the route for travelers (South Albania) and agrotourism (North Albania).
In this post we’ll talk about the colossal effort that is being developed in Northern Albania to carry out agrotourism projects driven economically by two countries: United States of America and Sweden. The aim of these programs is to reactivate the Albanian countryside and to give impulse to producers to open the doors of their farm to tourism and thus the world.
What has been the results of this effort? To answer that question we want to mention three women who have been the force behind this project: Liana, Ardiola, and Jo Nida. They have worked with passion to improve the economy of Albania’s countryside. I have dedicated my doctoral thesis to this country. I have worked not only in the academic aspect for Albania, but today I am looking to boost the products of its agriculture, says Liana while showing us the fields where the best lavender grows in the world.
The framework of agricultural production in the country is varied from medicinal herbs to pomegranates, grapes, potatoes, chestnuts, corn, and olives. The list could go further. However, to regain hope in this sector is a challenge after the disappearance of the collectivist model in the early 90's, says Liana, hence the model of agricultural sustainability for tourism is an optimistic bet.
Albania has historically gone through various periods of instability in which migration out of the country led Albania to a precarious subsistence that in recent years has sought to be reversed. To understand the magnitude, according to numbers reported by the World Bank, the gross domestic product of agriculture was 36% in 1990 and fell to 19% in 2017.
The collateral mission of agrotourism is to conserve the countryside. We want young people to fall in love with their parents' farms, not to go to another country. We want them to preserve what is theirs, Jo Nida tells me at the Farm Devin where Maria, the youngest daughter of the family, helps her mother with the development of the project.
It has been a really strong effort and process, full of challenges, and we are extremely committed to its success. I am an Albanian archaeologist and I proudly carry the heritage of my country in this program, Ardiola tells us as we picked chestnuts at the Markaj Farm which is about to start marketing chestnut jam as part of the productive results of the project.
These people really have it all. They are people surrounded by clean air and organic food. Peace is part of their daily lives. They drink water captured from the rain or from the nearby spring. Coming to their homes is therapy for all those who live in the city full of stress and fatigue, Liana reflects. Her affirmation stands no debate, agrotourism heals the soul and returns you to your inner self. I felt it in Nivicë and it returned to me that night in Ganjollë de Guri i Zi, where we were having dinner in the house of the Marku family.
The sun was setting behind a beautiful vineyard in Kopliku, while Jo Nida said: This is already sustainable by itself, the only thing we are doing with the program is to preserve it. True, there is no deception: the farms are already sustainable, they do not need any modern mechanisms to last. They have done it for years. It is a legacy of life, a legacy for the next generations.
The biggest challenge young people have is to accept and appreciate what is theirs and not move to another country. They are the key element to preserve agrotourism I think.
As I was saying goodbye to Ahmet Sylejmani, the last farmer in the tour, who with a smile in his eyes gives me a glass of freshly squeezed, organic juice from pomegranates we just picked from their trees, I realized that the biggest challenge young people have is to accept and appreciate what is theirs and not move to another country. They are the key element to preserve agrotourism I think.
Six projects, one mission: to get the Albanian countryside reactivated and tourism flowing, Ardiola points out to the camera. And, it’s with her interview that we conclude our impressive journey through Albania, a country that is now our home on this side of the world.
In the video you will see Devin Farm in Qerret Village located in Puka, Anete and Dioniz Marku Farm in the village of Ganjollë de Guri i Zi located in Shkodra, the beautiful farm Rruga e Mullirit in the village of Reç located in Malësi e Madhe, the exquisite vineyard of Koplik and the Farm of Shega Muriqan. The last two are pioneer projects which will start operating this next year and with that they will face the real test.
2,500 years of preserving, of sustaining: Subashi family.
Albania is simply authentic. Touring the country gives you the feeling of traveling through time. Its villages are small communities where people have the good habit of kindness and nobility, values that are not so common between the inhabitants of a 15-story apartment building. By any chance do you know the names of all your neighbors?
Not knowing your neighbors does not happen in the places we had the opportunity to explore in the Western Balkans. In fact Albania is a good example of the true meaning of the word community, which is: to put in common. The Albanians put people in common. They willl seek in every way to make a connection with you, they are people who want to recognize the thread that will unite them with you. This is how their conversation begins, and the thread they are weaving ends with a beautiful blanket of hospitality.
We saw this value with Silvana Subashi and her family’s olive oil processing company. Having preserved millenary olive fields, her business is one of the most magnificent examples of sustainability we visited. "You have to be proud of your origins to want to take care of them even In war, poverty and adversity. Each of these olive trees is a member of my family", Silvana tells us as we enter to her wonderful olive orchard, where the oldest tree is 2,500 years old.
Hey Cristina! What does this have to do with tourism? Local companies are one of the most important pillars for the conservation of tourism, Nancy Tare stated in Butrinty, because foreign investment can result in the displacement of local products that give the touch of authenticity to destinations.
As a conscious consumer that I am, it is unfortunate to find the same commercialized products, same shampoo, toothpaste, soda... in all the countries of the world. Cultural diversity, sustainability, and the authenticity of a place depends on the actions the locals generate.
The classic definition of geotourism by Jack Delf
Jack Delf moved from London to Montenegro with his wife and business partner fourteen years ago, after they fell in love with the Western Balkans. Together they founded a successful travel company in Montenegro which now works throughout the Western Balkans.
In 2005 he was looking for somewhere to set up an adventure travel company and recognized the incredible potential of this region, with its amazing landscapes, the best biodiversity in Europe, its unique cultural diversity and the genuine warmth and welcome of its people. As a director of one of the first adventure travel companies in the region, most of Jack's early work involved training and supporting other small businesses, local entrepreneurs, and community associations to create and supply travel experiences for his guests.
Now that his company is established he spends the majority of his time as a sustainable tourism consultant for USAID, the Adventure Travel Trade Association, the United National Development Program and others, helping to protect destinations which face the challenge of developing sustainable tourism in competition with pressures from mass tourism.
I believe that big tourism is an incredibly destructive industry that puts profit before people and causes a great deal of harm. What concerns me most is that 'big tourism' seems to promise so much to host communities but in reality the people who live in these beautiful destinations risk losing everything, their culture, the natural beauty of their surroundings, ownership and even access to the places where they have always lived. Look at developed destinations, all the best places are now foreign owned. Large scale resort developments usually bring a small return to local people and also often destroy the very things that we travel for. Local communities are lost. I've always been a passionate traveler and it breaks my heart to go back to places that have now been built over with hotels, parking lots and gas stations. The essence of these places, the things which once made them amazing are often lost forever. I don't want to see that happen to the Western Balkans. Watch the video below and hear from Jack about the challenges of developing sustainable tourism that values the protection of the nature and culture of this incredible region while benefitting the the local communities; the classic definition of geotourism.
Butrint, the city of desire.
Butrint is strictly attached to greek mythology, its historic legacy was written by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, historian and renowned writer of the greek origins of Rome. In his work, he tells that Aeneas, trojan warrior, father of Romulus and Remus crosses paths with Andromache, Hector of Troy’s spouse, after the war of Troy. This is one of the first written mentions of Buthrotum (Butrint) in history and with this specific story, it may be possibly founded by trojan war exiled.
The archeology of the ancestral city, evidently depicts the legacy of past cultures: greeks, romans, byzantines, venetians, turks, french and ottomans who foresaw in Butrint a strategic site for their expansion affairs. Kings, conquerors, prince’s, thinkers, archeologists and historians have found in this city vestiges of the conformation of human history. A legacy of humanity, that is Butrint. It was until 1927 that the greatness of this place remained hidden. Its archaeological finding started in hands of the Italian Archaeological Mission Camp. This enterprise traced the excavation of what would become one of Albania’s most ancient settlements. The official works started in 1928, nonetheless, as the archaeological work never concluded, it is thought that what we see today may be probably a fifth part of what still is beneath undergrowth.
Butrint is today an architectural complex of fifteen areas from different periods that go from the 4th century BC to the 16th century BC. The historical relevance of Butrint is overwhelming and being able to walk in it is a privilege: white stone statues of Octavian Augustus, Agrippa, Antioh, Serapis, Livia Drusila were once erected, as well as the high birthplace of citizens in different times or of Roman generals during the splendor of the empire when the city was called Colonia Augusta Buthrotum.
In addition to its historical splendor, Butrint is a paradisiacal home for the 800 species of plants, 246 species of birds, 105 species of fish and 39 of mammals. What happens then when this cultural heritage of humanity meets tourism? The first four paragraphs in which I have described it make this a city of desire. That is the real problem. Thousands of people want it and this is not entirely favorable. "On average Butrint receives around 300,000 people a year", says Auron Tare with awe to the camera.
It is a large number. It sounds like a good figure for turistic management purposes. It seems to be also an attractive business for private tours of 47 Euros per person. However, the consequences of this number and activity may seem okay in the short term: income and jobs for the region. But the reality is that during the 4 hours that the regular tour around Butrint lasts, it is unlikely to assess its historical and nature relevance. 300,000 people per year are equivalent to 50,000 walking feet per month in an extremely delicate archaeological site. "The experience can not exist if so many people, organised or not, seek to see something", says Auron Tare while a large American group was about to enter Butrint’s theater.
"It is a challenge, it really is, sometimes it is thought that increasing fees is the best so that few can access these places. But is it fair? If the majority of the citizens of a country could not pay the fare to enter and know their origins, their history" ... I agree with Auron’s punctual and eloquent words he ironically answered to the large American group when they gave some feedback on the matter.
The sustainability of the Western Balkans is put at stake not by the management of the destination or the behavior of their government or the income that tourism provides, no. Nor can we condemn the traveling tourist who wants to vaguely know everything in a hurry because he only has eight days for a vacation; the problem is in the background. We have been taught that more is better: therefore more places, more things, more experiences, more hotels, more temples, archaeological sites, monasteries, bridges. What we bring back home is the photo opportunity, not the real history of what they lived.
I invite you to approach how you travel critically because the sustainability of a destination depends on slow tourism in all aspects. It requires and will rely on the conscious traveler.
The true meaning of sustainability: involving locals
"Planning for the sustainability for the next 3,000 years, that’s the challenge we have for those who are dedicated to tourism, but how to start." - Nancy Tare
There are different macro factors that we must take into account when thinking about opening a site for tourism: the speed with which technology advances, the environment and its conservation, and the globalization that reaches us and makes us homogeneous in many ways. The latter, globalization is really important and a tricky one because if there’s nothing that makes us different, we can not preserve the cultural or natural identity of a place, and everything ends up being the same.
We came up with this reflection while we were walking through Butrint with Nancy Tare, Regional Director for Albania of the Western Balkans Geotourism Network Tourists start a journey because they want to know how life is in another place, she affirms to the camera. So to be able to think about the sustainability of a place you must first have "something" unique to preserve. If what we see in every destination is gray color, what is the point in looking for some contrast?
That's why Nancy says the most important thing for the creation of a sustainable tourism management plan relies in the local people. They are the only ones who can give sustainability its true meaning, they are only ones that can preserve what is theirs, Nancy tells us as we end the tour around the complex.
"So simple is that you can see ruins in this place, but a local, a local must see its history, feel proud of it and want to preserve it forever", Nancy's words echo and return us to Nivicë where their locals are people who love their land and feel proud of their landscapes, goats, gastronomy, culture, traditions, home, the raki they produce, and their morning coffee.
This is Nancy's reflection. The sustainability of the Balkans will depend to a large extent on the strength with which the locals see in their cultural traditions and natural blessing the true ancestral value that they represent so as not to change it for a souvenir made in China for the cost of a Euro.
Auron Tare's definition of sustainable tourism.
We have been here for several days and today, after having traveled with Auron the Director of Project Nivica, we openly and frankly asked in front of the camera, what is the sustainability of a destination for you? "Sustainability is to preserve the essence that made a place relevant over time", he responds while making us think about all the tourist destinations that have lost their authenticity; the ones that have welcoming protocols for tourists. The ones that have converted their culture into a show and that have, unfortunately, achieved for its popularity to be an impossible place to be inhabited by the locals. Auron continues explaining that in order to achieve sustainability, the following five elements are needed: leadership, vision, passion, commitment and a lot of patience. To reeducate is complicated when people only want to make quick money with tourism. Quick money. That concept leaps into our ears. Greed and despair are two medular factors that can destroy any tourist destination. These two anti-values lead to corruption and envy, and what was once unique is vitiated by the most negligent attitudes of modern and "developed" society. The theory that Auron proposes sounds challenging. It is clear that the model village of Nivicë has been thought, studied and designed with care to preserve the culture, history and nature of the region, but the only ones that will be able to overcome this challenge are the locals who will protect it.
Sarandë and several hypotheses.
"I can give you tours of how you successfully ruin a town"... - Auron Tare. When entering the city, Auron tells us it "only took twenty years for urbanization to destroy the villas of the port of Sarandë". It’s a fact. When thinking of the mediterranean Albania, the classical architectural beauty of the place has been lost. The white stone has been transformed into multicolor buildings of no particular aesthetics nor style. It’s as if a huge wave of unplanned development hit Sarandë and washed away its past.
The following day, while having breakfast at the downtown hotel, the industrial butter packets were an emotional shock while we remembered the taste of Dyshe’s home made butter in Nivicë. The following question crossed our minds: how can the soul of a place be lost?
We came up with several hypotheses: ignorance, corruption, greed, lack of planning or simply the regular customer’s unconscious wish for having a non-regional product for breakfast….No, it’s not sustainable to import those types of products for the banal desires of its mouth. The list can continue, but if any of these hypothesis are presented, the sustainability of a destination may disappear into the common noises of a city.
The sustainability of South Albania: Project Nivica, a look towards the future.
Albania is in a crucial economic and political moment in which it is learning to establish a capitalist economy and a democratic political system. For this reason, this small and unique country is pursuing sustainability through two means; the first is a route for travelers in southern Albania and the second is an agrotourism model in northern Albania.
This entry will focus on explaining the route in the south. For this I will quote Jonathan Tourtellot, a National Geographic Explorer: a world with tourism tends to be more peaceful than one without it. You are less likely to throw bombs in a place where you have had a nice vacation. I quote him because it’s so accurate. People do not hurt what they love, they treat it with care and seek to preserve it. This seems to be the central bet of the Nivica Project, where they’ve placed various elements in the tourist equation seeking to unleash emotions in travelers crossing a route composed of eleven villages in southern Albania.
Travelers can start anywhere along the route. The 22 villages have no connection with each other, they only share one geography, Auron tells us while pointing to a map that explains the location of the villages between Gjirokaster, Maja e Këndrevices and Leskovik. These villages will really work as stations, so that travelers who are making their way through the area can have an authentic approach to local lifestyles. Nivicë is the model village and the first of the project. The Management Plan of the area is being created with Auron Tare leading the direction of the project. Some of the villages are under reconstruction and are a true archeological gem for those of us who love history. Moving slowly and with caution is without the most important goal so that the developing guidelines created to protect culture, society and economy will enjoy a natural balance moving forward.
The reconstruction plan of Nivicë is the beginning but each of the villages: Qeparo, Borsh, Kuedhës, Çorraj, Kuç, Gusmar, Proganat, Lekdush, Bënç, Tepelenë, Dragoti, Peshtan, Leskaj, Dëshinicë, Hoshteva, Konckë, Nivani, Sheper, Poliçan, Skore, Sopik along with Nivicë will have their own growth model that seeks to protect the history and culture of Albania from the accelerated development that comes with mass tourism.
By 2018, the roads are already set to be traveled by hiking, biking or horseback riding, I do not list motorbiking or similar motorized means because it would really ruin the silence or the history of the landscapes. There are a few inns currently for sleeping or camping but the habilitation of the project will progress slowly and consciously in the next years.
When walking the route you will be able to see dramatic changes in the landscape every seven or eight kilometers. Touring the 22 villages would take a minimum of five days, says Auron. But after experiencing a little bit of this route we could say that you must travel with the local avash, avash philosophy, going slowly, slowly through each area to really be able to live it.
Faced with many challenges, let's see what the future holds for the south of Albania. They are like a white canvas waiting to be painted and that gives them the advantage of starting with the purity that other destinations have already lost. The most notable challenges they face are the recovery of natural spaces, tackling sensitive, social issues such as greed, or the problems that tourism brings with waste management and use of resources.
In the video you will see a historic day for Nivicë, October 12, 2018, that started midday where villagers gathered and discussed for the first time the future for their village with tourism.
We will have to wait some years to know the results of the promises we make to the future today, and carry the hope for travelers to visit with consciousness and moral values to safeguard this tourism model.
A traveler is not a tourist, a traveler starts a journey and keeps a knowledge journal. The tourist drinks beer on the beach. - Auron Tare.
Sustainable tourism is slow, a lesson by Arturo.
In order to generate sustainable tourism, the proposal of South Albania is to create routes or trails between different villages that can be traveled by various means. We prefer hiking and walked a few kilometers on the road between Kuç, Nivicë, Gusmar and Progranat.
On the way, Auron told us that "an important part of developing tourism in South Albania was to create roads". Auron refers to "creating roads" in two ways, the literal and the metaphorical. The literal is on a physical plane. "A few years ago, many of the roads were not accessible, we had to create the trails along with the army so that people could connect between villages and walk the mountains in a simpler way", said Auron, breaking the silence that comes with the beautiful landscape.
The Western Balkans now have trail markings that signal international standards and guide travelers to appreciate places of scenic, cultural and social interest. In South Albania we were guided on the road by yellow signs indicating how many kilometers away we were from the next village, and every so often the follow-up white and red stroke signaling we were headed the right way.
On our short route, we met Arturo. While shepherding his 250 goats he spoke to us in fluent Italian that we were able to understand since we speak Spanish. While we listened, we gazed at the sun rays that moved among the clouds in secrecy. We understood that the true value of traveling is in these trails or ‘roads’ that can bring travelers a slow, quiet and unhurried tourism. It was here, far from the masses and the on-schedule tours, and closer to the soul of Albania where we began to appreciate the rhythm of the orchestrated bells of Arturo’s herd. Another incredible way to travel these paths is by horseback. Auron talks about it in the next video.
A personal perspective of the soul of Nivicë.
The Nivica Project houses two small villages in Albania that seek the connection of other sites with the country, the settlements are: Nivicë and Rexhina. To talk about these places there must be an explanation of history, orography, climates, fauna, flora and sublime landscapes. This is because Nivicë is located in the Kurvelesh region, which is part of the Mali I Gribë mountain range, one of the highest peaks of these southern mountains.
The mountains provide a magic to everyday life in Nivicë: "Awakening in this place is to return to the past, to the origins of humanity, regardless of nationality, skin color or language, Nivicë invites you to return to the past." - Petrit, local villager (Translated to English by Vilson, one of our guides).
How is the current sustainability of this place? The hours are long and pleasant in Nivicë. Its inhabitants get up early to milk cows, make dairy products, bake bread, distill a local beverage made out of grapes called Raki and prepare the meals of the day. "Everything is organic, everything is homemade, there are no pesticides." – Dyshe, local villager. (Translated to English by Vilson)
The families here are self-sufficient. In the same yard the vegetables grow and the chickens, cows and goats live. This is how they show us that nothing else is necessary. No supermarket, pharmacy nor stores are nearby, "no, there's nothing like that until Tepelenë that is about an hour and a half away" - Vilson, guide.
And everything is fine without the "comforts" of today's world? No, it's more than good, it's perfect. The inhabitants of Nivicë are the clear example that quality of life comes with tranquility, peace and dedication to the care of their land.
A traveler can preserve this by embracing local culture that is lived, "It is important to conduct yourself in Nivicë understanding that money is not the currency of exchange. If a villager invites you to his house, you must give something of yourself to him, of your region. This is how it has worked for centuries, we do not to want to alter it", Auron Tare, Nivica Project’s Director, tells me after an invaluable approach I had with the residents Dyshe and Petrit.
When an elderly woman invited me to her house, she received me with sweets, drinks and hugs. I could understand through her eyes that it was not necessary for me to speak her language or for her to understand my words. We were united by human kindness.
The soul of Nivicë is found in its people, in the traditions and care that they have towards the land that saw them born and today take cares for them. If you ever come, do not forget this, please respect and embrace it´s simplicity.
Dyshe and Petrit`s Bed and Breakfast is named “House on Canyon” and you can find it www.guesthousecanyon.al
House in the Canyon, Nivicë
Dallendyshe and Petrit Merjo owned a home in Nivicë but moved away in the early 1990's when the village was abandoned. Though they still owned their home in Nivicë, they lived in a town called Vlorë. In 2017 when Auron Tare started the Nivicë project, he approached them with the new plan of renovating Nivicë and the idea of Dallendyshe and Petrit returning to open a B & B. Auron spoke with them about the benefits of tourism and small business. Though they were scared in the beginning, they believed in the opportunity.
Auron helped them to receive basic training of running a B&B, were taken to see how other guest houses were run around the country, and did light renovation on their home which they now call 'Mejro House on the Canyon' where guests would be staying.
Now, they love that they are able to live back in their home and village in the mountains where it is quiet and peaceful. They are a model of sustainability making their own bread, butter and cooking with vegetables from their garden behind their home along the cliff's edge.
Meet Dallendyshe and Petrit Merjo in the video below and fall in love with them like we have.
South Albania’s first village for a new, sustainable model
Which is the most forgotten place you know? Where were you the last time you were only astonishingly surrounded by silence? When was the last time you took a breath of clean air? Which place makes you feel humble with it’s vast history? For Auron Tare, all these questions have a single answer: Nivicë, Albania.
I sincerely don't know if we are doing good or bad in the attempt of making Nivicë our pilot village for the tourism model we want to create, he repeated several times off camera. We truly understand his concern. In the few days we stayed in this small village, that has no more than 50 families spread around the town square and countryside, we fell in love with the fragile authenticity and pureness of Nivicë.
Its silence is as deep as the canyons that protect the village. It is a place that connects you with your inner self. Maybe it's the Sacred Oaks Temple that protects it from the other side of the canyon, or the starry sky that embraces Nivicë with peacefulness. It shouldn’t be just the landscape that attracts travelers. Here the paths connect with ancient culture’s history, Auron told us while walking towards an apple orchard that was planted during the 1960’s communist period and today feeds free, wild horses.
Nivicë is the new sustainable tourism promise for the South of Albania. The goal that Auron is looking forward to, along with the local people and the Government of Tepelenë (the province in which Nivicë is located) is to connect the coast of Albania with mountain villages like Nivicë that have remained forgotten due to the political circumstances that Albania went through in recent past.
With the aid of universities in Europe, the vernacular architecture of the area was researched and the town’s square was rebuilt with a total 5,000 square meters of white stone that will attend the basic needs and services for the travelers that can arrive by trekking or horse riding.
A great merit was to maintain the school within the town square’s perimeter. With this action the kids will get to know that its small village promises to be a successful model to the world where travelers like us will cross thousands of miles just to experience it. A final long-term hope is to decrease the migration problem of people leaving Albania to live elsewhere that is latent to the region. The number increased to 1.5 million Albanians in 2010 estimated by the Pew Research Center’s Forum. Here is the link for the study’s methodology
The model of Nivicë is planned to start operating within the next few years. By slowly moving forward, it will involve the locals in order to preserve inherent methods of food preparation, architecture and traditions. One of the most important challenges is to remind the villagers that they have an exceptional place that has amazing value. If one day investors come with the will to buy the land, at least there will be a management plan that they will need to attend first. But our hope is in making the locals so proud of their village that their land will always stay with them, says Auron while Bora, his Labrador, goes back to the stones she’s been playing with during our interviews in the square.
The Sacred Oaks "Temple"
The area where we're traveling was called the Epirus region in ancient times. We're less than 100 kilometers away from the Acheron River which extends along the border of southern Albania border and northwestern Greece. In ancient Greek mythology, Acheron was known as the "river of woe", and was one of the five rivers of the Greek underworld. Charon or Kharon was the ferryman of Hades who carried souls of the newly deceased across the Acheron river that divided the world of the living from the world of the dead.
Nivicë, the small, mountainous village where we're staying is full of ancient beliefs which even Christianity and Islam have not managed to wash away or destroy completely. People in this region still believe in the evil eye, fairies, thunder, and the sacred oaks. It's not witchcraft but an ancient belief the people here still hang on to today.
Listen to Auron's words ...
The start of our expedition What does Auron Tare have to say?
After a drive from the busy streets of Tirana, we reached the mountain region of the south, not far from the coastline. We journeyed through beautiful landscape touched by history along the way. After crossing river Vjosa (Ancient Aoss), the only free river in Europe, we entered the remote mountain region, passing goat and sheep herds with bells making music along the hillsides. We arrived late into the small, once abandoned village of Nivicë.
The Nivicë project for Auron Tare, project coordinator, this is a personal endeavor, passion, and challenge to create a model for sustainable tourism. Click the video to hear from Auron himself.
Keep watching our exploration into ancient trails bringing new life to southern Albania.
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Here we are, three explorers wanting to understand three countries and one objective: their sustainability. We’re not sure what we’ll see but what we‘re sure about is with this minimal gear we'll maximize our efforts. What do you think we'll find? What would you like to know through our expedition? Follow us! This adventure is about to begin.
Western Balkans: The Fight for a Sustainable Future
The global surge in tourism growth is so out of control in places that it has spawned a new term: overtourism. In the western Balkans, natural, historic, and cultural sites are now at risk from unconstrained, insensitive development. The coastlines of Montenegro and Albania are already succumbing to crass commercialization. World Heritage sites like the Greco-Roman ruins of Butrint, Albania, must contend with swelling, uncontrolled numbers of sightseers.
Yet tourism, if done well, has much to offer both residents and visitors in these countries. Well-managed tourism can help fund preservation and conservation of World Heritage sites, even cultural landscapes. Struggling rural places such as Nivica, Albania, want the kind of tourism that’s responsible, educational, and mutually beneficial.
I’m a video producer who’s been exploring and telling stories of people working to protect the planet since 2007. Teaming up with Jonathan Tourtellot, originator of the geotourism approach and director of the Destination Stewardship Center, I work to share inspiring stories of people working to protect their nature, culture and heritage around the world. Geotourism as defined via National Geographic refers to “tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place.”
Our expedition in the western Balkans seeks to find out and video what’s working and what isn’t—the places that are lost, the ones that are threatened, and those where tourism offers opportunity. In Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia and possibly Kosovo, we’ll interview the heroes who fight to keep these places authentic and make tourism constructive, not destructive.
Our research goal: Find out whether they can help save unspoiled areas of the western Balkans before it’s too late.
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